The American Chemical Society, in collaboration with the Royal Society of Chemistry, designated the development of
penicillin as an International Historic Chemical Landmark on November 19, 1999. The text of the plaque commemorating
the event reads:
In 1928, at St. Mary's Hospital, London, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. This discovery led to the introduction
of antibiotics that greatly reduced the number of deaths from infection. Howard W. Florey, at the University of Oxford working
with Ernst B. Chain, Norman G. Heatley and Edward P. Abraham, successfully took penicillin from the laboratory to the clinic
as a medical treatment in 1941. The large-scale development of penicillin was undertaken in the United States of America during
the 1939-1945 World War, led by scientists and engineers at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory of the US Department of
Agriculture, Abbott Laboratories, Lederle Laboratories, Merck & Co., Inc., Chas. Pfizer & Co. Inc., and E.R. Squibb & Sons.
The discovery and development of penicillin was a milestone in twentieth century pharmaceutical chemistry.
The Royal Society of Chemistry's Historic Chemical Landmarks can be
found at http://www.rsc.org/lap/publicaf/landmarks.htm.